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Definition of SPD

Anything slightly odd, peculiar or weird - dive in!

Definition of SPD

Postby MGMT » Mon Aug 18, 2008 9:38 am

International diagnostic criteria:
According to the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders:

F21 Schizotypal Disorder

A disorder characterized by eccentric behaviour and anomalies of thinking and affect which resemble those seen in schizophrenia, thought no definite and characteristic schizophrenic anomalies have occurred at any stage. There is no dominant or typical disturbance, but any of the following may be present:

(a) inappropriate or constricted affect (the individual appears cold and aloof);
(b) behaviour or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar;
(c) poor rapport with others and a tendency to social withdrawal;
(d) odd beliefs or magical thinking, influencing behaviour and inconsistent with subcultural norms;
(e) suspiciousness or paranoid ideas;
(f) obsessive ruminations without inner resistance, often with dysmorphophobic, sexual or aggressive contents;
(g) unusual perceptual experiences including somatosensory (bodily) or other illusions, depersonalization or derealization;
(h) vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped thinking, manifested by odd speech or in other ways, without gross incoherence;
(i) occasional transient quasi-psychotic episodes with intense illusions, auditory or other hallucinations, and delusion-like ideas, usually occurring without external provocation.

The disorder runs a chronic course with fluctuations of intensity. Occasionally it evolves into overt schizophrenia. There is no definite onset and its evolution and course are usually those of a personality disorder. It is more common in individuals related to schizophrenics and is believed to be part of the genetic "spectrum" of schizophrenia.


American diagnostic criteria:
According to the DSM-IV-TR:

Diagnostic Criteria

A: A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
1. ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
2. odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)
3. unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
4. odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
5. suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
6. inappropriate or constricted affect
7. behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
8. lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
9. excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self
B: Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add "Premorbid," e.g., "Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Premorbid)."
Diagnosis: schizotypal disorder, depression
Meds: Abilify 20 mg
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Info from Mayo Clinic

Postby HAL 2000 » Tue Aug 19, 2008 8:41 am

Here's more info from this site:

Schizotypal personality disorder

Definition
Schizotypal personality disorder is a serious condition in which a person usually has few to no intimate relationships. Such people tend to turn inward rather than interact with other people, and experience extreme anxiety in social situations.

People with schizotypal personality disorder often have trouble engaging with others and appear emotionally distant. They find their social isolation painful, and eventually develop distorted perceptions about how interpersonal relationships form. They may also exhibit odd behaviors, respond inappropriately to social cues and hold peculiar beliefs.

As a result, people with schizotypal personality disorder often find themselves drifting from one activity to the next, failing to connect with people as they meander through life.

Schizotypal personality disorder is a chronic condition. The pattern typically begins in early adulthood and endures throughout life. There's no cure for schizotypal personality disorder, but psychotherapy and some medications may help alleviate symptoms.

Symptoms
Classic schizotypal personalities are apt to be loners, having few to no intimate relationships. They exhibit extreme anxiety in social situations, often associated more with distrust and an inability to communicate with others than with a negative self-image. They view themselves as alien or forlorn, and this isolation causes pain as they disengage more and more from relationships and the outside world.

People with schizotypal personalities often have odd patterns of speech and ramble endlessly on subjects tangent to a topic of conversation. They may dress in peculiar ways and have very strange ways of viewing the world around them. Often they harbor unusual ideas, such as believing in the powers of ESP or a "sixth sense." At times, they believe they can magically influence people's thoughts, actions and emotions.

In adolescence, signs of a schizotypal personality may begin as a gravitation toward solitary activities or a high level of social anxiety. The child may be an underperformer in school or appear socially out-of-step with peers, and as a result often becomes the subject of bullying or teasing.

Symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder include:

* Incorrect interpretation of events, including feeling that external events have personal meaning
* Peculiar thinking, beliefs or behavior
* Belief in special powers, such as telepathy
* Perceptual alterations, in some cases bodily illusions, including "phantom pains" or other distortions in the sense of touch
* Idiosyncratic speech, such as loose or vague patterns of speaking or tendency to go off on tangents
* Suspicious or paranoid ideas
* Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
* Lack of close friends outside of the immediate family
* Persistent and excessive social anxiety that doesn't abate with time

Schizotypal personality disorder can easily be confused with schizophrenia, which is characterized by intense psychosis, a severe mental state characterized by a loss of contact with reality. While schizotypal personalities may experience brief psychotic episodes with delusions or hallucinations, they are not as pronounced, frequent or intense as in schizophrenia.

Both disorders, along with schizoid personality disorder, belong to what's generally referred to as the "schizophrenic spectrum." Schizotypal personality falls in the middle of the spectrum, with schizoid personality disorder on the milder end and schizophrenia on the more severe end.

Causes
Your personality is the sum total of the ways you think, feel, behave and react to your environment. It derives from a combination of genetics and early life experience. When someone chronically feels or behaves in an inappropriate way, that person is suffering from a personality disorder.

In normal development, children progress through several stages of social awareness and learn to accurately interpret the cues and intentions of others. For schizotypal personalities this social cognition is impaired, leading to development of illogical beliefs, magical thinking and paranoid thoughts, such as a nagging suspicion that one is being harassed, persecuted or treated unfairly.

The exact reason or cause of this impairment is unknown. Some experts contend that childhood abuse, neglect or stress results in the brain dysfunction that gives rise to schizotypal symptoms. Both genetics and environmental circumstances appear to play a role in development of the disorder.

A family history — such as having a parent who has schizophrenia or schizotypal personality — increases your chances of developing the condition. A number of environmental factors also may contribute, such as a neglectful or abusive childhood home.

Risk factors
Personality development is affected by genetic tendencies as well as environmental factors, such as stressful childhood experiences. Factors that increase the risk of developing the schizotypal personality disorder include:

* Having a relative who has schizophrenia
* Living in a childhood environment of deprivation or neglect
* Experiencing child abuse or mistreatment
* Undergoing a childhood trauma
* Having an emotionally detached parent

When to seek medical advice
Because personality tends to become entrenched as people age, it's best to seek treatment for a personality disorder as early as possible.

People with schizotypal personality are likely to seek help only at the urging of friends or relatives. If you suspect a friend or family member may suffer from the disorder, be on the lookout for certain symptoms. You might gently suggest that the person seek medical attention, starting with a primary care physician or mental health professional.

Tests and diagnosis
There are no laboratory tests for personality disorders, so diagnosis typically comes after a thorough clinical interview. The doctor will ask questions about symptoms and mental well-being, and take a medical, psychiatric and social history. A physical examination will help rule out other conditions, and a mental health professional will likely be consulted for further evaluation.

For a diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder, at least five of the following criteria must be met:

* Incorrect interpretations of events, including a feeling that something innocuous has a direct personal meaning
* Odd beliefs or magical thinking that's inconsistent with cultural norms
* Unusual perceptions, including illusions
* Odd thinking and speech patterns
* Suspicious or paranoid thoughts, such as the belief that someone's "out to get them"
* Flat emotions, appearing aloof and isolated
* Odd, eccentric or peculiar behavior or appearance
* Lack of close friends or confidants other than relatives
* Excessive social anxiety that doesn't diminish with familiarity

In addition, the person must never have met the criteria for any other schizophrenic disorder. To distinguish schizotypal personality from schizophrenia, the doctor looks for the presence of psychosis and experiences with hallucinations or delusions.

Complications

People with schizotypal personality are at an increased risk of:

* Developing schizophrenia
* Suffering from a major depression
* Anxiety disorder, characterized by prolonged worry or uneasiness
* Dysthymia, a low-grade depressed mood that continues for more than two years
* Panic disorder, characterized by sudden bouts of heart-pounding terror
* Social phobia, characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations.
* Avoidant personality disorder, characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition and feelings of ineptness
* Obsessive-compulsive disorder, characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts and repetitive behaviors
* Borderline personality disorder, characterized by a constant state of emotional turmoil

Treatments and drugs
Treatment for schizotypal personality disorder may be with a combination of medication and one or more of several types of therapy.

* Medications. There's no specific drug treatment for the disorder; however, doctors may prescribe antidepressant or antipsychotic medications to help alleviate associative conditions such as anxiety, depression or other mood disorders. For example, treatment for distorted thinking may be with the prescription medications risperidone (Risperdal) and olanzapine (Zyprexa).
* Psychotherapy. Building a trusting rapport in therapy may help people with schizotypal personality disorder contradict the mistrust or discomfort they have with developing interpersonal relationships.
* Behavioral therapy. People with schizotypal personalities often need to learn specific interpersonal skills and new behaviors, as they often have difficulty responding appropriately to social cues. For example, they might learn to express appropriate feelings or adjust facial expressions and voices in reaction to certain stimuli.
* Cognitive therapy. People with schizotypal personality disorder may respond to exercises that focus on interrupting distortions in thought. For example, this type of therapy may use reasoning exercises to clarify social confusion and overcome self-defeating thoughts, especially in interpersonal situations.
* Family therapy. Treatment can be more effective when family members are involved. Seeking professional counseling as a group may help diminish angry confrontations or emotional distancing in the home. Family therapy may also offer the affected person reassurances of a support structure and a boost in morale.

Prevention

Because schizotypal personality disorder originates with the family and childhood environment, early intervention may help diminish the development of problem behaviors.
HAL 2000
 

Re: Definition of SPD

Postby Loronzo » Mon May 11, 2009 6:39 pm

odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations

this one is present only in DSM IV. ICD-10 excludes it.
One would include religion here - is opinion on telepathy, clairvoyance, believing or not to it, believing or not in UFO's already a diagnose?
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby Kashya » Wed May 13, 2009 6:31 pm

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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby MajorFreak » Sun Dec 19, 2010 10:27 pm

what the hell is "stereotyped thinking"? Is that what my doc meant when telling me i "see patterns where there are none"?
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby Black_Cloud » Mon Dec 20, 2010 12:49 am

My understand of Stereotyped thinking is that a person groups all into a stereo type of some kind. Like thinking All blonde women are ditzy and stupid. Or that All men with high voices are homosexual. Or All black people are good dancers.

To take a stereo type we hear about and lump everyone in that category into that stereotype.
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby MajorFreak » Wed Dec 22, 2010 1:54 am

yeah, but are you racist and sexist? I don't think schizotypal makes us that way, since i don't think i am...besides the psychological community just adores inventing concepts to use even when it flies in the face of the actual layman's dictionary denotation of such.
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby Black_Cloud » Wed Dec 22, 2010 3:54 am

Right, I was just trying to answer what I thought others might describe this type if thinking to be. Not that I believe it.
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby MajorFreak » Wed Dec 22, 2010 5:42 am

oh, hey, since we're on a roll here...do you have low uhm..."low concentration" too? or is that just me?
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Re: Definition of SPD

Postby Black_Cloud » Wed Dec 22, 2010 11:53 am

Low concentration, well, at times I do but it's not all the time. It comes and goes mostly.
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